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Type 1 Diabetes

Also called: juvenile diabetes

A chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin.

It typically appears in adolescence.

Symptoms include increased thirst, frequent urination, hunger, fatigue, and blurred vision.

People may experience:

  • Whole body: excessive thirst, fatigue, hunger, or sweating
  • Gastrointestinal: nausea or vomiting
  • Urinary: bedwetting or excessive urination
  • Also common: blurred vision, fast heart rate, headache, sleepiness, or weight loss


Treatment consists of insulin

Treatment aims at maintaining normal blood sugar levels through regular monitoring, insulin therapy, diet, and exercise.

Ask a doctor

Source: American Diabetes Association

  • How can I prevent complications from Type 1 diabetes? Controlling blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels may prevent heart disease by 42%.
  • Why is it important to have "good" blood glucose numbers? Intensive blood glucose control decreases eye disease by 76%, kidney disease by 50%, and nerve disease by 60%.
  • Can I eat carbs? Yes. Whole grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, and dairy products are healthier choices than highly processed carbs.
  • Do I need to exercise? Routine exercise (21⁄2 hours a week of moderate exercise or 75 minutes a week of vigorous exercise) is recommended.
  • How often do I need to take insulin? Frequent insulin injections (more than 3 times a day or insulin pumps) may improve blood glucose control and prevent complications.


  • Insulin: Helps control the amount of sugar (glucose) in the bloodstream.
  • Insulin glulisine (Apidra)
  • Insulin detemir (Levemir)
  • Insulin aspart (NovoLog)
  • Insulin lispro (Humalog)
  • Insulin (Humalog, Afrezza, Humulin, and Exubera)
  • Insulin glargine (Lantus)

Dietary supplement: Works alone or in conjunction with other treatments to promote health.

  • Glucose tablets

Hormone therapy: Affects body processes by regulating the activity of the organs.

  • Glucagon (GlucaGen)


Nutrition counseling: Diet advice provided by a nutrition expert to prevent or treat

Carbohydrate counting: Keeping track of the amount of carbohydrates consumed, which are found in foods like soda, bread, and pasta.

Diabetic diet: Diet that helps diabetics control their blood sugar (glucose) by reducing sugar and carbohydrates. For example, drinking less soda and eating less bread.

Physical exercise: Aerobic activity for 20-30 minutes 5 days a week improves cardiovascular health. If injured, pursuing an activity that avoids the injured muscle group or joint can help maintain physical function while recovering.


  • Endocrinologist: Treats metabolic and hormone disorders.
  • Nutritionist: Specializes in food and diet.
  • Pediatrician: Provides medical care for infants, children, and teenagers.
  • Primary care provider (PCP): Prevents, diagnoses, and treats diseases.
  • Emergency medicine doctor: Treats patients in the emergency department.

Critical: consult a doctor for medical advice disease.

Note: The information you see describes what usually happens with a medical condition, but doesn't apply to everyone. This information isn't medical advice, so make sure to contact a healthcare provider if you have a medical problem. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor or a emergency number immediately.

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