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Type 2 Diabetes

Also called: adult onset diabetes

A chronic condition that affects the way the body processes blood sugar (glucose).



With type 2 diabetes, the body either doesn't produce enough insulin, or it resists insulin. Symptoms include increased thirst, frequent urination, hunger, fatigue, and blurred vision. In some cases, there may be no symptoms. Treatments include diet, exercise, medication, and insulin therapy.

Symptoms

Requires a medical diagnosis

Symptoms include increased thirst, frequent urination, hunger, fatigue, and blurred vision. In some cases, there may be no symptoms.

People may experience:

  • Whole body: excessive hunger, increased thirst, or fatigue
  • Weight: weight gain or weight loss
  • Also common: frequent urination, blurred vision, or poor wound healing

Treatments

Treatment consists of self care and antidiabetic medications

Treatments include diet, exercise, medication, and insulin therapy.

Ask a doctor

  • Source: American Diabetes Association
  • How can I prevent complications? Tightly controlled blood glucose (A1c under 7%) may decrease eye, kidney, and nerve disease by 25%.
  • Can I eat carbs? Yes. Whole grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, and dairy products are healthier choices than highly processed carbs.
  • Which exercises should I do? Doing aerobic exercise (21⁄2 hours a week) and resistance training (2-3 times a week) may improve your blood sugar levels and lower your chances of getting heart disease.
  • Will statin medications help? Statins lower "bad" cholesterol, and may decrease premature death by 10%.
  • How do I manage high blood pressure? Targets below 140/90 mmHg may reduce your chances of a stroke by 35%.

Self-care

  • Physical exercise: Aerobic activity for 20-30 minutes 5 days a week improves cardiovascular health. If injured, pursuing an activity that avoids the injured muscle group or joint can help maintain physical function while recovering.
  • Smoking cessation: Quitting smoking tobacco.
  • Weight loss: Can improve cardiovascular health and reduce the risk of complications related to obesity.
  • Nutrition counseling: Diet advice provided by a nutrition expert to prevent or treat disease.
  • Diabetic diet: Diet that helps diabetics control their blood sugar (glucose) by reducing sugar and carbohydrates. For example, drinking less soda and eating less bread.
  • Dietary fiber: The parts of plant foods that the body can't digest. Helps to control blood sugar, soften stools, and maintain bowel health.

Medications

Anti-Diabetic medication: Controls the amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood.

  • Glipizide (Glucotrol)
  • Glimepiride (Amaryl)
  • Metformin (Glumetza, Glucophage, Riomet, and Fortamet) Saxagliptin (Onglyza)
  • Rosiglitazone (Avandia)
  • Pioglitazone (Actos)
  • Acarbose (Precose)
  • Glyburide (Micronase, DiaBeta, and Glynase)
  • Exenatide (Byetta and Bydureon)
  • Sitagliptin (Januvia)
  • Metformin / Sitagliptin (Janumet)
  • Glyburide / Metformin (Glucovance)
  • Metformin / Pioglitazone
  • Metformin / Rosiglitazone (Avandamet)
  • Metformin / Saxagliptin monohydrate
  • Glipizide / Metformin

Blood thinners: Helps prevent blood clots from forming or helps dissolve existing clots.

  • Aspirin (Ecotrin, Fasprin, Select, and Rugby)

Statin: Decreases the liver's production of harmful cholesterol.

  • Atorvastatin (Lipitor)

Insulin: Helps control the amount of sugar (glucose) in the bloodstream.

  • Insulin detemir (Levemir)
  • Insulin aspart (NovoLog)
  • Insulin lispro (Humalog)
  • Insulin (Humalog, Afrezza, Humulin, and Exubera) Insulin glargine (Lantus)
  • HUMULIN 70/30 injectable suspension 100 [IU]/ml

Preventative

Influenza vaccine: A vaccine that is updated every year to protect against the latest flu viruses. Often called a flu shot.

Pneumococcal vaccine: A vaccine that prevents a certain type of bacterial lung infection (pneumonia)

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Specialists

Primary care provider (PCP): Prevents, diagnoses, and treats diseases. Ophthalmologist: Specializes in eye diseases.

Endocrinologist: Treats metabolic and hormone disorders. Nutritionist: Specializes in food and diet.

Consult a doctor for medical advice

Note: The information you see describes what usually happens with a medical condition, but doesn't apply to everyone. This information isn't medical advice, so make sure to contact a healthcare provider if you have a medical problem. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor or a emergency number immediately.

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